How to Upgrade MariaDB Database from 5.5.65 to 10.1.46 in Linux CentOS Operating System

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This article will show how to upgrade the MariaDB database version from an old one to a new one. The old version available for an example in this context is the MariaDB database 5.5.65. On the other hand, the new version in this context is the MariaDB database 10.1.20. The following are the steps in order to upgrade the database :

1. First of all, use the mysql_upgrade tool which is available in MariaDB database tools from the old version of 5.5.65. The following is the execution process of the ‘mysql_upgrade’ tool :

[root@hostname ~]# mysql_upgrade -uroot -p
Enter password:
Phase 1/4: Fixing views
Phase 2/4: Fixing table and database names
Phase 3/4: Checking and upgrading tables
Processing databases
information_schema
db_app
db_app.table                                       OK
db_app.table2                                      OK
mysql
mysql.columns_priv                                 OK
mysql.db                                           OK
mysql.event                                        OK
mysql.func                                         OK
mysql.help_category                                OK
mysql.help_keyword                                 OK
mysql.help_relation                                OK
mysql.help_topic                                   OK
mysql.host                                         OK
mysql.ndb_binlog_index                             OK
mysql.plugin                                       OK
mysql.proc                                         OK
mysql.procs_priv                                   OK
mysql.proxies_priv                                 OK
mysql.servers                                      OK
mysql.tables_priv                                  OK
mysql.time_zone                                    OK
mysql.time_zone_leap_second                        OK
mysql.time_zone_name                               OK
mysql.time_zone_transition                         OK
mysql.time_zone_transition_type                    OK
mysql.user                                         OK
performance_schema
Phase 4/4: Running 'mysql_fix_privilege_tables'
OK
[root@hostname ~]#
[root@hostname ~]# mysql --version
mysql  Ver 15.1 Distrib 5.5.65-MariaDB, for Linux (x86_64) using readline 5.1
[root@hostname ~]#

2. According to the output above, although the command execution above for upgrading the version using the tool or the utility available from MariaDB database version of 5.5.65 is done, apparently it doesn’t update the version. So, another solution to reach for is to continue on updating the MariaDB database totally to a higher version which is the MariaDB version of 10. In order to do that, first of all remove or uninstall the MariaDB database version of 5.5.65 :

 
[root@hostname ~]# yum remove mariadb mariadb-server
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7 will be erased
---> Package mariadb-server.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7 will be erased
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
========================================================================================================================
 Package                         Arch                    Version                           Repository              Size
========================================================================================================================
Removing:
 mariadb                         x86_64                  1:5.5.65-1.el7                    @base                   49 M
 mariadb-server                  x86_64                  1:5.5.65-1.el7                    @base                   58 M
 
Transaction Summary
========================================================================================================================
Remove  2 Packages
 
Installed size: 107 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading packages:
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Erasing    : 1:mariadb-server-5.5.65-1.el7.x86_64                                                                 1/2
warning: /var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log saved as /var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log.rpmsave
  Erasing    : 1:mariadb-5.5.65-1.el7.x86_64                                                                        2/2
  Verifying  : 1:mariadb-server-5.5.65-1.el7.x86_64                                                                 1/2
  Verifying  : 1:mariadb-5.5.65-1.el7.x86_64                                                                        2/2
 
Removed:
  mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7                           mariadb-server.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7
 
Complete!
[root@hostname ~]#

3. After that, install MariaDB database 10 using yum installer. Prior to that, it need a MariaDB database 10 repository file definition. Just define the repository file that can show or point out to yum package installer where to get the installer source of the MariaDB database 10. Just create a new file with the name of MariaDB.repo in the folder of /etc/yum.repos.d. Write the following content in the file  :

 
# MariaDB 10.1 RedHat repository list - created 2016-02-06 03:30 UTC
# http://mariadb.org/mariadb/repositories/
[mariadb]
name = MariaDB
baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.1/rhel7-amd64
gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
gpgcheck=1

4. Next one, in order to make sure that the MariaDB database 10 is available for further use, just execute the following command first :

[root@hostname yum.repos.d]# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.***********
 * extras: mirror.***********
 * updates: mirror.***********
repo id                                                 repo name                                                 status
base/7/x86_64                                           CentOS-7 - Base                                           10,070
extras/7/x86_64                                         CentOS-7 - Extras                                            413
mariadb                                                 MariaDB                                                       86
updates/7/x86_64                                        CentOS-7 - Updates                                         1,134
repolist: 11,703
[root@hostname yum.repos.d]#

5. After reassuring that the MariaDB database repository is available for access and the MariaDB database 10 exist in the repository list, one thing that must be done next is to search the MariaDB database 10 installer package by running the following command :

 
[root@hostname ~]# yum search MariaDB
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.***********
 * extras: mirror.***********
 * updates: mirror.***********
================================================= N/S matched: MariaDB =================================================MariaDB-backup.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-backup-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-backup
MariaDB-cassandra-engine.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-cassandra-engine-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-cassandra-engine
MariaDB-client.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-client-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-client
MariaDB-common.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-common-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-common
MariaDB-compat.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-connect-engine.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-connect-engine-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-connect-engine
MariaDB-cracklib-password-check.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-cracklib-password-check-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-cracklib-password-check
MariaDB-devel.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-gssapi-client.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-gssapi-client-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-gssapi-client
MariaDB-gssapi-server.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-gssapi-server-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-gssapi-server
MariaDB-oqgraph-engine.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-oqgraph-engine-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-oqgraph-engine
MariaDB-server.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-server-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-server
MariaDB-shared.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-shared-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-shared
MariaDB-test.x86_64 : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
MariaDB-test-debuginfo.x86_64 : Debug information for package MariaDB-test
mariadb-bench.x86_64 : MariaDB benchmark scripts and data
mariadb-devel.i686 : Files for development of MariaDB/MySQL applications
mariadb-devel.x86_64 : Files for development of MariaDB/MySQL applications
mariadb-embedded.i686 : MariaDB as an embeddable library
mariadb-embedded.x86_64 : MariaDB as an embeddable library
mariadb-embedded-devel.i686 : Development files for MariaDB as an embeddable library
mariadb-embedded-devel.x86_64 : Development files for MariaDB as an embeddable library
mariadb-libs.i686 : The shared libraries required for MariaDB/MySQL clients
mariadb-libs.x86_64 : The shared libraries required for MariaDB/MySQL clients
mariadb-server.x86_64 : The MariaDB server and related files
mariadb.x86_64 : A community developed branch of MySQL
mariadb-test.x86_64 : The test suite distributed with MariaD
 
  Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.
[root@hostname ~]#

6. From the search result above, there is a MariaDB database package installer. But before installing that package installer, confirm that the installation package of MariaDB database is the version 10. In order to confirm it, just execute the following command :

 
[root@hostname ~]# yum info mariadb-server
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.***********
 * extras: mirror.***********
 * updates: mirror.***********
Available Packages
Name        : MariaDB-server
Arch        : x86_64
Version     : 10.1.20
Release     : 1.el7.centos
Size        : 24 M
Repo        : mariadb
Summary     : MariaDB: a very fast and robust SQL database server
URL         : http://mariadb.org
License     : GPLv2
Description :
            :
            : It is GPL v2 licensed, which means you can use the it free of charge under the
            : conditions of the GNU General Public License Version 2 (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/).
            :
            : MariaDB documentation can be found at https://mariadb.com/kb
            : MariaDB bug reports should be submitted through https://jira.mariadb.org
 
Name        : mariadb-server
Arch        : x86_64
Epoch       : 1
Version     : 5.5.65
Release     : 1.el7
Size        : 11 M
Repo        : base/7/x86_64
Summary     : The MariaDB server and related files
URL         : http://mariadb.org
License     : GPLv2 with exceptions and LGPLv2 and BSD
Description : MariaDB is a multi-user, multi-threaded SQL database server. It is a
            : client/server implementation consisting of a server daemon (mysqld)
            : and many different client programs and libraries. This package contains
            : the MariaDB server and some accompanying files and directories.
            : MariaDB is a community developed branch of MySQL.
 
[root@hostname ~]#

7. The above output command execution ‘yum info’ above display that there are two versions of MariaDB database. It is the new version of 10.1.20 and the old version of 5.5.65. The only one needed is the 10.1.20 version which is the new one. Actually, the installation process which is done with a standard command will choose and prioritize the newest version as the following command :

 
[root@hostname ~]# yum -y install mariadb mariadb-server
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.***********
 * extras: mirror.***********
 * updates: mirror.***********
Package mariadb is obsoleted by MariaDB-client, trying to install MariaDB-client-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64 instead
Package mariadb-server is obsoleted by MariaDB-server, trying to install MariaDB-server-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64 instead
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package MariaDB-client.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: MariaDB-common for package: MariaDB-client-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64
---> Package MariaDB-server.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: lsof for package: MariaDB-server-10.1.46-1.el7.centos.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: galera for package: MariaDB-server-10.1.46-1.el7.centos.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libjemalloc.so.1()(64bit) for package: MariaDB-server-10.1.46-1.el7.centos.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package MariaDB-common.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos will be installed
---> Package galera.x86_64 0:25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libboost_program_options.so.1.53.0()(64bit) for package: galera-25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos.x86_64
---> Package jemalloc.x86_64 0:3.6.0-1.el7 will be installed
---> Package lsof.x86_64 0:4.87-6.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package boost-program-options.x86_64 0:1.53.0-28.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Conflict: MariaDB-common-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64 conflicts mariadb-libs < 1:10.1.46-1.el7.centos --> Restarting Dependency Resolution with new changes.
--> Running transaction check
---> Package MariaDB-shared.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos will be obsoleting
---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7 will be obsoleted
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                        Arch                            Version                                              Repository                        Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 MariaDB-client                                 x86_64                          10.1.20-1.el7.centos                                 mariadb                           10 M
 MariaDB-server                                 x86_64                          10.1.20-1.el7.centos                                 mariadb                           24 M
 MariaDB-shared                                 x86_64                          10.1.20-1.el7.centos                                 mariadb                          622 k
     replacing  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7
Installing for dependencies:
 MariaDB-common                                 x86_64                          10.1.20-1.el7.centos                                 mariadb                           68 k
 boost-program-options                          x86_64                          1.53.0-28.el7                                        base                             156 k
 galera                                         x86_64                          25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos                           mariadb                          8.2 M
 jemalloc                                       x86_64                          3.6.0-1.el7                                          mariadb                          104 k
 lsof                                           x86_64                          4.87-6.el7                                           base                             331 k
 
Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Install  3 Packages (+5 Dependent packages)
 
Total download size: 44 M
Downloading packages:
warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/mariadb/packages/MariaDB-common-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 1bb943db: NOKEY  69 kB  00:18:27 ETA
Public key for MariaDB-common-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm is not installed
(1/8): MariaDB-common-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                |  68 kB  00:00:01
(2/8): MariaDB-client-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                |  10 MB  00:00:10
(3/8): boost-program-options-1.53.0-28.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                | 156 kB  00:00:00
(4/8): MariaDB-shared-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                | 622 kB  00:00:01
(5/8): galera-25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                  | 8.2 MB  00:00:09
(6/8): lsof-4.87-6.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                    | 331 kB  00:00:00
(7/8): jemalloc-3.6.0-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                               | 104 kB  00:00:01
(8/8): MariaDB-server-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                |  24 MB  00:00:35
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                       1.2 MB/s |  44 MB  00:00:37
Retrieving key from https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
Importing GPG key 0x1BB943DB:
 Userid     : "MariaDB Package Signing Key <package-signing-key@mariadb.org>"
 Fingerprint: 1993 69e5 404b d5fc 7d2f e43b cbcb 082a 1bb9 43db
 From       : https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : MariaDB-common-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               1/9
  Installing : MariaDB-client-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               2/9
  Installing : boost-program-options-1.53.0-28.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               3/9
  Installing : galera-25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                                 4/9
  Installing : lsof-4.87-6.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                   5/9
  Installing : jemalloc-3.6.0-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                              6/9
  Installing : MariaDB-server-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               7/9
  Installing : MariaDB-shared-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               8/9
  Erasing    : 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.65-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       9/9
  Verifying  : MariaDB-client-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               1/9
  Verifying  : MariaDB-common-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               2/9
  Verifying  : jemalloc-3.6.0-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                              3/9
  Verifying  : lsof-4.87-6.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                   4/9
  Verifying  : galera-25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                                 5/9
  Verifying  : MariaDB-server-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               6/9
  Verifying  : MariaDB-shared-10.1.20-1.el7.centos.x86_64                                                                                                               7/9
  Verifying  : boost-program-options-1.53.0-28.el7.x86_64                                                                                                               8/9
  Verifying  : 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.65-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                       9/9
 
Installed:
  MariaDB-client.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos             MariaDB-server.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos             MariaDB-shared.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos
 
Dependency Installed:
  MariaDB-common.x86_64 0:10.1.20-1.el7.centos   boost-program-options.x86_64 0:1.53.0-28.el7   galera.x86_64 0:25.3.29-1.rhel7.el7.centos   jemalloc.x86_64 0:3.6.0-1.el7
  lsof.x86_64 0:4.87-6.el7
 
Replaced:
  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.65-1.el7
 
Complete!
[root@hostname ~]#

8. After the installation process is finished, the next step is to activate the service and to automate the service for starting every time when server  boots or starts. Soon after that, try to execute another upgrade script further by executing the following command :

 
[root@hostname ~]# systemctl start mysql
[root@hostname ~]# systemctl enable mysql
mysql.service is not a native service, redirecting to /sbin/chkconfig.
Executing /sbin/chkconfig mysql on
[root@hostname ~]# mysql_upgrade -uroot -p
Enter password:
Phase 1/7: Checking and upgrading mysql database
Processing databases
mysql
mysql.columns_priv                                 OK
mysql.db                                           OK
mysql.event                                        OK
mysql.func                                         OK
mysql.help_category                                OK
mysql.help_keyword                                 OK
mysql.help_relation                                OK
mysql.help_topic                                   OK
mysql.host                                         OK
mysql.ndb_binlog_index                             OK
mysql.plugin                                       OK
mysql.proc                                         OK
mysql.procs_priv                                   OK
mysql.proxies_priv                                 OK
mysql.servers                                      OK
mysql.tables_priv                                  OK
mysql.time_zone                                    OK
mysql.time_zone_leap_second                        OK
mysql.time_zone_name                               OK
mysql.time_zone_transition                         OK
mysql.time_zone_transition_type                    OK
mysql.user                                         OK
Phase 2/7: Installing used storage engines
Checking for tables with unknown storage engine
Phase 3/7: Fixing views
Phase 4/7: Running 'mysql_fix_privilege_tables'
Phase 5/7: Fixing table and database names
Phase 6/7: Checking and upgrading tables
Processing databases
db_app
db_app.table                                       OK
db_app.table2                                         OK
information_schema
performance_schema
Phase 7/7: Running 'FLUSH PRIVILEGES'
OK
[root@hostname ~]#

By looking the above output, the upgrade process is actually finished. It upgrade from the MariaDB database version of 5.5 into MariaDB database version of 10.1.20.

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